Rush Bagot Agreement Map

Bagot first met with Secretary of State James Monroe and then with his successor Benjamin Rush (a signer of the Declaration of Independence). Together, they developed an agreement that limited each nation to one or two ships per sea intended solely for military navigation (i.e., cartography and surveying, not defence). While this treaty has done little to resolve persistent border disputes with British Canada over the years, it has laid the foundation for the world`s longest peaceful border. Although the treaty caused difficulties during the First World War, its terms were not changed. Similar problems arose before the Second World War, but Foreign Minister Cordell Hull wanted to preserve the agreement because of its historical importance. In 1939 and 1940, Canada and the United States agreed to interpret the treaty so that weapons would be installed in the Great Lakes, but would no longer be operational until ships left the lakes. In 1942, the United States, now at war and allied with Canada, successfully proposed that weapons be fully installed and tested in the lakes by the end of the war. Following discussions in the Permanent Joint Board on Defense in 1946, Canada similarly proposed to interpret the agreement to allow the use of ships for training purposes when each country informs the other. [9] The Rush Bagot Pact was an agreement between the United States and Great Britain to eliminate their fleets from the Great Lakes, with the exception of small patrol ships. The 1818 Convention established the boundary between the Territory of Missouri in the United States and British North America (later Canada) at forty-ninth latitude. These two agreements reflected the easing of diplomatic tensions that had led to the War of 1812 and marked the beginning of Anglo-American cooperation.

Bagot met informally with Secretary of State James Monroe and eventually reached an agreement with his successor, Acting Minister Richard Rush. The agreement limited military navigation on the Great Lakes to one to two ships per country on each sea. The U.S. Senate ratified the agreement on April 28, 1818. The British government felt that a diplomatic exchange of letters between Rush and Bagot was sufficient to make the agreement effective. Although the agreements did not fully take into account border disputes and trade agreements, the Rush Bagot Agreement and the 1818 Convention marked an important turning point in Anglo-American and American-Canadian relations. A plaque from the Ontario Heritage Trust in Kingston, Ontario, recognizes the Rush Bagot Agreement (44°13′48″N 76°27′59″W / 44.229894°N 76.466292°W / 44.229894; -76.466292). A commemorative plaque is also on the former site of the British Embassy in Washington, D.C (38°54′13.7″N 77°3′8.4″W / 38.903806°N 77.052333°W / 38.903806; -77.052333) where the agreement was negotiated. On the site of Old Fort Niagara (43°15′48″N 79°03′49″W / 43.263347°N 79.063719°W / 43.263347; -79.063719) is a monument with reliefs of Rush and Bagot as well as the words of the treaty. [10] While these commissions were debating border issues, Rush and Gallatin concluded the Anglo-American Convention of 1818, which, among other things, confirmed the permanent right of the United States to fish off Newfoundland and Labrador. The Convention also provided for Russian mediation on the issue of escaped slaves from British hands (American slave owners eventually received financial compensation) and also established that the border would run from angle Inlet south to forty-ninth latitude, then west to the Rockies. The Oregon Country would remain open to both countries for ten years.

In 2004, the U.S. Coast Guard decided to arm 11 of its small trawlers stationed on Lake Eriesee and Lake Huronse with 7.62mm M240 machine guns. . . .